Publications

Year of Publication: 2017

  • Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

    Italian Language Second Edition

  • An online, self-paced curriculum for learning the basic techniques government agencies, citizen action groups, corporations and research institutions use to solve pressing environmental problems.

    The book is divided into four sections: The first section focuses on how certain environmental problems can only be solved through active government effort to implement policies that effectively take science and politics into account empowering readers to develop, through exercises and videos, a solid framework to shape an action plan to solve specific environmental problems. The next section focuses on formulating a sound philosophical basis for taking action in environmental problem solving situations. Through exercises and videos, readers will be able to take a stand on these debates, drawing on practical cases with worked examples. The penultimate section helps environmental practitioners understand how to use various analytical tools empowering readers to practice multi-party environmental problem-solving, and to identify the power of each tool to enhance environmental problem-solving, developing the judgment to enumerate strengths and weaknesses as they see them playing out in practice. The concluding section is a survey of the theory and practice behind mobilizing support for particular problem-solving ideas.

  • In the fourth panel of presenters for the Finance, Geography and Sustainability Workshops, Elke Weber, Professor in Energy and the Environment and Professor of Psychology and Public Affairs at Princeton University and Lawrence Susskind, Ford Professor or Urban and Environmental Planning at MIT discuss how individuals construction and measure risks, and how an understanding of these feelings of risk can be applied to climate change decisions.

  • Professor Lawrence Susskind's first video in the DUSP Faculty Videos. In this video Larry talks about his academic interests spanning his 45 years at MIT. In addition, he describes the benefits and network EPP and DUSP offer to students at MIT.

  • Susskind, L., 2017. The Political and Cultural Dimensions of Water Diplomacy in the Middle East. In J. Cahan Water Security in the Middle East Essays in Scientific and Social Cooperation. Water Security in the Middle East Essays in Scientific and Social Cooperation. Anthem Press.

    Water Security in the Middle East explores the extent and nature of water security problems in transboundary water systems in the Middle East. This collection of essays discusses the political and scientific contexts and the limitations of cooperation in water security. The contributors argue that while conflicts over transboundary water systems in the Middle East do occur, they tend not to be violent nor have they ever been the primary cause of a war in this region.

    The authors place water disputes in larger political, historical and scientific contexts and discuss how the humanities and social sciences could contribute more towards this understanding. They also contend that international sharing of scientific and technological advances can significantly increase access to water and improve water quality. While scientific advances can and should increase adaptability to changing environmental conditions, especially climate change, national institutional reform and the strengthening of joint commissions are vital. The contributors indicate ways in which transboundary cooperation may move from simple and intermittent coordination to sophisticated, adaptive and equitable modes of water management.

  • How can planners involve individuals to participate in an informed manner in the planning process for their communities? What effect do localized, carefully designed, serious games have on  their participants's actions in their community? Can they be used as a public policy and planning tool to change the course of history in particular locations?

Year of Publication: 2016

  • Larry Susskind is the Ford Professor of Urban and Environmental Planning at MIT, the founder of the Consensus Building Institute, and a leading theorist in the field of public sector dispute resolution. On March 30, he met with students and professionals at the University of Utah College of Law for an enlightening Q & A Fireside Chat. Topics discussed ranged from his personal career path to the role of elected officials as conveners of collaborative processes. The Fireside Chat followed Larry’s Stegner Lecture, during which he spoke about Managing Climate Risks in Resilient Cities. His Stegner Lecture stressed the importance of focusing on “adaption now!,” inclusion and consideration of diverse stakeholders’ perspectives in adaptation planning, and moving beyond discussion to the “do something” stage of resiliency-building. These events kicked off the 21st Annual Wallace Stegner Symposium Green Infrastructure, Resilient Cities: New Challenges, New Solutions held March 31 and April 1, 2016.

  • Professor Lawrence Susskind's presentation on creating consensus on local climate risk management, drawn from Managaing Climate Risks in Coastal Communities and the research conducted for the New England Climate Adaptation Project.

  • If you can' negotiate, you can't be a successful entrepreneur. As Howard H. Stevenson, long-time business scholar has said, entrepreneurship is “the pursuit of opportunity beyond resources controlled.” That means that no matter what the sector, entrepreneurship requires convincing others—your startup co-founders, angel investors, venture capitalists, employees, and potential business partners—to commit their knowledge, time, reputation, expertise, and money to your idea.

  • With Lawrence Susskind, Professor at MIT, Author of 20 books on negotiation skills and techniques including his latest, Good for You, Great for Me: Finding the Trading Zone and Winning at Win-Win Negotiations Acknowledging that we all negotiate in many aspects of our daily lives— with our spouses, our friends, our children—Professor Susskind defines how to negotiate, as it applies to his  online course, as the proper interaction between investors and entrepreneurs, so that each party presents and protects their respective interests in a manner that leads to positive results all the way around. As opposed to the “old school” way of selling, where the presenter or sales person goes into the room with a product or an idea and simply puts it on the table, Susskind teaches the value of advance preparation, the importance of building relationships, studying all the angles, and anticipating resistance, all important components of how to negotiate successfully. 

  • Susskind, L. et al., 2016. Joint Fact-finding: Process and Practice. In Joint Fact-Finding in Urban Planning and Environmental Disputes (The Earthscan Science in Society Series) . Joint Fact-Finding in Urban Planning and Environmental Disputes (The Earthscan Science in Society Series) . Routledge, pp. 14-27.

    The days of rationalist scientific management and deference to official data are behind us. The credibility of experts and the information they provide are regularly challenged; officials are routinely provided with conflicting sets of ‘facts’ as they plan and make decisions; and decision-makers and stakeholders alike are largely sceptical that technical information will adequately account for the various interests and concerns and lead to the right outcomes. Uncertainly around issues like climate change only complicates matters further, as scientists and technicians must increasingly acknowledge the uncertainty and potential fallibility of their findings.

    This book examines how groups looking to plan and make decisions in any number of areas wade through the imperfect and often contradictory information they have to make fair, efficient, wise and well-informed choices. An emerging and very promising approach called joint fact-finding (JFF) can help. Rather than each stakeholder group marshalling the set of facts that best advance their respective interests and perspectives while discrediting the contradictory facts others provide, groups are challenged to collaboratively generate a shared set of facts that all parties accept. This book will introduce readers to the theory of JFF, the value it can provide, and how they can adopt this approach in practice. It will bring together writings from leading practitioners and scholars from around the world that are at the forefront of JFF approach to science intensive policy making, urban planning, and environmental dispute resolution. It will comprise of two parts: First, a set of chapters that outline the concept and practice of JFF; and second, a set of case-based chapters that elucidate how JFF is being applied in practice.

    This book delivers a new perspective to scholars in the field of public policy, urban planning, environmental studies, and science and technology studies, as well as public officials, technical experts, policy consultants, and professional facilitators.

  • Interivew with Small Business with Stever Strauss. February 19, 2016 

     

  • In order to effectively adapt to climate change, public officials and other stakeholders need to rapidly enhance their understanding of local risks and their ability to collaboratively and adaptively respond to them. We argue that science-based role-play simulation exercises — a type of 'serious game' involving face-to-face mock decision-making — have considerable potential as education and engagement tools for enhancing readiness to adapt. Prior research suggests role-play simulations and other serious games can foster public learning and encourage collective action in public policy-making contexts. However, the effectiveness of such exercises in the context of climate change adaptation education and engagement has heretofore been underexplored. We share results from two research projects that demonstrate the effectiveness of role-play simulations in cultivating climate change adaptation literacy, enhancing collaborative capacity and facilitating social learning. Based on our findings, we suggest such exercises should be more widely embraced as part of adaptation professionals' education and engagement toolkits.

  • If you can’t negotiate, you can’t be a successful entrepreneur. My new online class at MIT is designed to help both new and experienced entrepreneurs improve their negotiation skills. This includes learning how to handle the four unique features of entrepreneurial negotiation.

  • Lawrence Susskind and Saleem Ali examine the challenges of environmental diplomacy. Despite the best intentions expressed by states pursuing environmental accords and agreements there has always been difficulty getting international actors to live up to commitments. The authors take up these difficulties, assessing the possibilities for environmental diplomacy going forward.

  • The importance of negotiating skills is often neglected in engineering training. Prof  Susskind, who teaches at MIT, explains why this is a mistake; and why it presents different problems from those engineers are used to.

     

  • An increased focus on ‘policy literacy’ for climate scientists, parallel to ‘science literacy’ for the public, is a critical need in closing the science–society gap in addressing climate mitigation. We define policy literacy as the knowledge and understanding of societal and decision-making contexts required for conducting and communicating scientific research in ways that contribute to societal wellbeing. We argue that current graduate education for climate scientists falls short in providing policy literacy. We identify resources and propose approaches to remedy this, arguing that policy literacy education needs to be mainstreamed into climate science curricula. Based on our experience training science students in global environmental policy, we propose that policy literacy modules be developed for application in climate science curricula, including simulations, case studies, or hands-on policy experiences. The most effective policy literacy modules on climate change will be hands-on, comprehensive, and embedded into scientific education.

  • Jim Blasingame's the Small Business Advocate, April 27th 2016

  • Susskind, L., 2016. The Warming Arctic: Site of a New 'Cold War'?. The Warming Arctic: Site of a New "Cold War"?.

    MIT's Center for International Studies hosted the Starr Forum: The Warming Arctic: Site of a New 'Cold War'?where speakers explored the geopolitical implications of the thawing Arctic. Speakers discussed what is at stake as trade routes and mineral deposits open up due to Climate Change. The changing landscape in the Arctic opens up tremendous potential, but also the possibility of geopolitical conflict among the littoral states. The range of topics included; What should be the new international regime governing Arctic exploration and passage? What are US and Russian objectives in the Arctic? Can the states surrounding the Arctic agree about governance? How great is the potential for conflict over Arctic resources and re-militarization?

Year of Publication: 2015

  • An early leader in climate mitigation and green living, Boston established itself as an innovator in sustainability. However, when it comes to climate preparedness, Boston, like many other cities, is still trying to define a strategy. Boston faces numerous hurdles to implementing a climate preparedness agenda ranging from a lack of funding and coordination to uncertainty regarding which interventions are worth pursuing. Despite these hurdles, Boston has made one innovative modification in its permitting process that is moving its preparedness agenda forward. 

  • A seven-party role-play simulation involving a diverse set of stakeholders who must consider the short-term and long-term public health impacts of climate change while assessing the pros and cons of specific (and conflicting) risk management strategies.

  • Drawing on research from the New England Climate Adaptation Project, “Managing Climate Risks for Coastal Communities” introduces a framework for building local capacity to respond to climate change. The authors maintain that local climate adaptation efforts require collective commitments to risk management, but that many communities are not ready to take on the challenge and urgently need enhanced capacity to support climate adaptation planning. To this end, the book offers statistical assessments of one readiness enhancement strategy, using tailored role-play simulations as part of a broader engagement approach. It also introduces methods for forecasting local climate change risks, as well as for evaluating the social and political context in which collective action must take place. With extensive illustration and example engagement materials, this volume is tailored for use by researchers, policy makers and practitioners.

  • While successful elsewhere, the offshore wind energy sector has been unable to launch off the Atlantic coast of the United States. We explore the regulatory, political, and legal factors behind the delays encountered by American offshore wind. We also provide an update on the regulatory changes that federal and state governments are adopting to overcome the barriers to the sector’s emergence. We ascribe offshore wind’s difficulties to a costly and contentious development cycle, which is due in part to a fragmented regulatory landscape and inconsistent political support. We see reasons for optimism, however, in the regulatory reforms being enacted at the state and federal levels. These reforms add clarity to the permitting and leasing process, and they offer various kinds of direct support to offshore wind energy developers. 

  • When it comes to conflicts over the allocation of freshwater supply, who bears the burden, at what cost, and at what scale are important questions. While science can contribute to resolution of certain water allocation disputes, more scientific certainty will not resolve most water allocation controversies. Water stress in Africa and in the Middle East—particularly in the Nile Basin—is likely to lead to a range of conflicts, not because there is not enough scientific information to go around, but for other reasons. Water stress is likely to emerge as an increasingly important concern because population growth, current allocation practices, unchecked demand, and underinvestment in infrastructure are not being appropriately addressed. An effective way to resolve water crisis is to reframe conflicting needs and uses of water as opportunities for joint decision-making about this shared resource. The authors use the Nile Basin to illustrate how such informal problem-solving and decision-making can be initiated.

  • In many public policy situations, formal negotiations and collective problem solving are inhibited by a lack of good ideas that can get the buy-in and support of all involved stakeholders. We suggest that devising seminars provide a promising approach for helping to overcome this barrier. A devising seminar is an off-the-record, facilitated workshop that brings together representatives of core stakeholding interest groups to brainstorm mutually advantageous approaches to address collective challenges. In this article, we explain what devising seminars are, how they work, and how they can help with complex public policy disputes. We illustrate through the case of the Devising Seminar on Arctic Fisheries and conclude with lessons learned from that experience.

  • Schenk, T. et al., 2015. Using role-play simulations to encourage adaptation. In Action Research for Climate Change Adaptation: Developing and Applying Knowledge for Governance. Action Research for Climate Change Adaptation: Developing and Applying Knowledge for Governance. Routledge.

    Governments all over the world are struggling with the question of how to adapt to climate change. They need information not only about the issue and its possible consequences, but also about feasible governance strategies and instruments to combat it. At the same time, scientists from different social disciplines are trying to understand the dynamics and peculiarities of the governance of climate change adaptation.

    This book demonstrates how action-oriented research methods can be used to satisfy the need for both policy-relevant information and scientific knowledge. Bringing together eight case studies that show inspiring practices of action research from around the world, including Australia, Denmark, Vietnam and the Netherlands, the book covers a rich variety of action-research applications, running from participatory observation to serious games and role-playing exercises. It explores many adaptation challenges, from flood-risk safety to heat stress and freshwater availability, and draws out valuable lessons about the conditions that make action research successful, demonstrating how scientific and academic knowledge can be used in a practical context to reach useful and applicable insights.

    The book will be of interest to scholars and students of climate change, environmental policy, politics and governance.

Year of Publication: 2014

  • In the case of Arctic Fisheries, our research team interviewed 45 participants from 12 countries. Interviewees were asked about: (1) new risks to various Arctic fisheries posed by retreating sea ice; (2) strategies for protecting fish stocks; (3) gaps in scientific knowledge; (4) the possible need for new monitoring systems; (5) concerns of indigenous communities; (6) ways of reducing the impact of oil spills that might occur; and (7) the possible need for new treaties or new institutional arrangements. We have grouped interviewee responses into seven stakeholders categories: national governments; fishing industry; oil and gas industry; indigenous peoples and human rights advocates; multilateral institutions; environmental interests; and independent scientists. The national governments stakeholder category is discussed in terms of Arctic five countries (Russia, U.S., Canada, Norway and Denmark, through Greenland and the Faroe Islands) and non-Arctic five countries (Iceland, Finland, and Sweden), as interviewees often referred to states according to these distinctions. Although some of our respondents were women, we have used the pronoun “he” for all interviewees in an effort to maintain anonymity. To avoid confusion, we have used the terms “central Arctic” and “peripheral Arctic” throughout the document to distinguish different regions of the Arctic, as compared to “high Arctic,” “low Arctic,” or other distinctions. We understand these terms mean different things to different people, and we hope our use of these terms accurately captures the intended meaning of our interviewees.

  • Susskind, L., Rumore, D. & Schenk, T., 2014. Arctic Fisheries Devising Seminar: Summary Report. Program on Negotiation Working Paper Series.

    The Arctic Fisheries Devising Seminar brought together 23 people from a wide variety of stakeholder groups to wrestle with these questions. Participants included high-level government policy-makers from various states, regions, and territories, namely Canada, the European Union (EU), the Faroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States; experienced government scientists; key representatives from non-governmental organizations, scientific organizations, and industry; distinguished representatives from Arctic indigenous peoples; and highly regarded scholars and Arctic experts. Participants came with an extremely impressive set of credentials and affiliations. They were asked to engage on equal footing as individuals rather than in their official capacity, and to help generate ideas that would be acceptable to their own constituencies while concurrently addressing the concerns of other stakeholder groups. That is, they were invited to participate in an informal, off-the-record problem-solving exercise. To this end, no comments are attributed to individual participants, nor is anyone identified by name. Instead, this summary reports on the topics introduced, the good ideas that emerged, and points of convergence and divergence among the group.

  • There are various ways games can be used to inform, and even alter, high-stakes policy negotiations. I’m going to describe several of them below, but this only works when the actual negotiators take part in the game in advance of undertaking their own “real life” interactions. I’m not convinced that the results of role-play simulations involving students or other stand-ins will mean much to senior government representatives.

  • The Program On Negotiation at Harvard Law School invited three members of its highly experienced negotiation faculty to share stories about how they have adapted their teaching strategies in various cross-cultural contexts.

  • Six-party, multi-issue negotiation focused on issues of public engagement in hydropower-based energy development

  • International environmental agreements have increased exponentially within the last five decades. However, decisions on policies to address key issues such as biodiversity loss, climate change, ozone depletion, hazardous waste transport and numerous other planetary challenges require individual countries to adhere to international norms. What have been the successes and failures in the environmental treaty-making arena? How has the role of civil society and scientific consensus contributed to this maturing process? Why have some treaties been more enforceable than others and which theories of international relations can further inform efforts in this regard? Addressing these questions with renewed emphasis on close case analysis makes this volume a timely and thorough postscript to the Rio-Plus 20 summit's celebrated invocation document, The Future We Want, towards sustainable development.

    Environmental Diplomacy: Negotiating More Effective Global Agreements provides an accessible narrative on understanding the geopolitics of negotiating international environmental agreements and clear guidance on improving the current system. In this book, authors Lawrence Susskind and Saleem Ali expertly observe international environmental negotiations to effectively inform the reader on the geopolitics of protecting our planet. This second edition offers an additional perspective from the Global South as well as providing a broader analysis of the role of science in environmental treaty-making. It provides a unique contribution as a panoramic analysis of the process of environmental treaty-making.

  • “Win-win” negotiation is an appealing idea on an intellectual level: Find the best way to convince the other side to accept a mutually beneficial outcome, and then everyone gets their fair share. The reality, though, is that people want more than their fair share; they want to win. Tell your boss that you’ve concocted a deal that gets your company a piece of the pie, and the reaction is likely to be: “Maybe we need to find someone harder-nosed than you who knows how to win. We want the whole pie, not just a slice.” However, to return to an earlier era before “win-win” negotiation was in fashion and seek simply to dominate or bully opponents into submission would be a step in the wrong direction—and a public relations disaster.

    By showing how to win at win-win negotiating, Lawrence Susskind provides the operational advice you need to satisfy the interests of your back table—the people to whom you report. He also shows you how to deal with irrational people, whose vocabulary seems limited to “no,” or with the proverbial 900-pound gorilla. He explains how to find trades that create much more value than either you or your opponent thought possible. His brilliant concept of “the trading zone”—the space where you can create deals that are “good for them but great for you,” while still maintaining trust and keeping relationships intact—is a fresh way to re-think your approach to negotiating. The outcome is often the best of both possible worlds: You claim a disproportionate share of the value you’ve created while your opponents still look good to the people to whom they report.

    Whether the venue is business, a family dispute, international relations, or a tradeoff that has to be made between the environment and jobs, Susskind provides a breakthrough in how to both think about, and engage in, productive negotiations.

  • Two, separate, two-person, non-scorable negotiations: one between Technical Co-chairs from the Center for Disease Control and USAID; the other between a CDC Technical Co-Chair and the Minister of Health in the imaginary host country of Sabada.

  • Two, separate, two-person, non-scorable negotiations: one between Technical Co-chairs from the Center for Disease Control and USAID; the other between a CDC Technical Co-Chair and the Minister of Health in the imaginary host country of Sabada.

  • In some Canadian provinces, they take what is called Judicial Dispute Resolution (JDR) very seriously. During designated periods each year, litigants can choose to have a judge help them settle their lawsuits in a confidential pre-trial conference.

  • Susskind, L. et al., 2014. New England Climate Adaptation Project: Case Studies Dover, New Hampshire; Barnstable, Massachusetts; Wells, Maine and Cranston, Rhode Island., Science Impact Collaborative at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Consensus Building Institute.

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Science Impact Collaborative worked with the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) and the Consensus Building Institute to test an innovative way to help coastal communities understand and prepare for the potential impacts of climate change. With a grant from the NERRS Science Collaborative, the team engaged four at-risk New England towns in testing the use of role-play simulations as a means to educate the public about climate change threats and to help communities explore ways of decreasing their vulnerability and enhancing their resilience to climate change impacts.

    The results of the two year project are summarized in four case studies. 

  • The Program On Negotiation's Vice-Chair of Education, Professor Lawrence Susskind shares some valuable insights on his groundbreaking book, Breaking Robert's Rules.

  • The Program On Negotiation's Vice-Chair of Education, Professor Lawrence Susskind shares some valuable insights on the process of the consensus building approach.

  • The Program On Negotiation's Vice-Chair of Education, Professor Lawrence Susskind shares some valuable insights on facilitative leadership in Negotiation.

  • The Program On Negotiation's Vice-Chair of Education, Professor Lawrence Susskind shares some valuable insights on the process of who should be at the negotiation table.

  • The Program On Negotiation's Vice-Chair of Education, Professor Lawrence Susskind shares some valuable insights on the process of Joint Fact Finding.

  • The Program On Negotiation's Vice-Chair of Education, Professor Lawrence Susskind shares some valuable insights on value creation during a negotiation.

  • Susskind, L. et al., 2014. The Future of Hydropower in Chile. Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law, 32(4).

    Existing legal and regulatory frameworks in Chile do not ensure adequate opportunities to address the trade-offs associated with hydropower effectively. As a result, hydro projects have become the focus of intense public protests and legal disputes. This article provides a historical overview of hydro development in Chile, and then analyses three elements of Chile's hydropower 'problem': the need for improved governance of the electricity and water sectors, more comprehensive and timely environmental and social impact assessment, and fuller respect for the rights of indigenous peoples affected by hydropower projects.

Year of Publication: 2013

Year of Publication: 2012

Year of Publication: 2011

  • This article examines the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) in the United States, and other CAM efforts, to illustrate why and how procedural shortcomings may lead to natural resource management failures and reflect on how they may be overcome.

  • Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

    Spanish Language Edition

  • Eight-party negotiation (with option for a ninth person facilitator) regarding climate change issues in a situation loosely based on the situation in Viet Nam.

  • Two, separate, two-person, non-scorable negotiations: one between Technical Co-chairs from the Center for Disease Control and USAID; the other between a CDC Technical Co-Chair and the Minister of Health in the imaginary host country of Sabada.

  • Two, separate, two-person, non-scorable negotiations: one between Technical Co-chairs from the Center for Disease Control and USAID; the other between a CDC Technical Co-Chair and the Minister of Health in the imaginary host country of Sabada.

  • Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

    Dutch Language Edition

  • In the practice stories and commentaries that follow, good practice leads and inspires good theory. We will read about transportation planning and environmental management, about community involvement and multi-stakeholder negotiations, and throughout about deftly bringing technical expertise into play to inform creative proposals while working within specified budget constraints. We will read about early and even virtual negotiations among building users to inform architects' design choices and their more or less productive professional roles too. And there's much more

  • Susskind, L., Myers, N.Bradish & McNickle, A.Petruska, 2011. Learning the Art and Science of Negotiation: Tools for All User Fee Stakeholders. In PDUFA and the Expansion of FDA User Fees: Lessons from Negotiators. PDUFA and the Expansion of FDA User Fees: Lessons from Negotiators. The Food and Drug Law Institute.

    Since passage of the first Prescription Drug User Fee Act almost 20 years ago, user fee negotiations and the legislative vehicles that authorize them have significantly changed the scope of FDA’s responsibilities. After PDUFA paved the way to the acceptance of user fees, programs were created for other FDA-regulated industries, such as medical devices, animal drugs, generic animal drugs and tobacco. Several additional user fee programs are on the horizon, such as those for generic human drugs and biosimilars. Are you and your organization ready to engage in a smart, educated manner?

    There are many issues that reach across user fee programs. This book addresses: What approaches have been taken by FDA and the regulated industries to the various user fee programs? What can the history of prescription drug and medical device user fee negotiations tell us about future negotiations? What strategies worked in the past? What are the lessons learned that can be applied across all stakeholders?

    Chapters explore the history leading to the first user fee program (PDUFA), the biopharmaceutical industry perspective on negotiating user fees, a first-of-its-kind view of negotiations from the FDA lens, a clear explanation of Congress’ role in enacting user fees, insight into how user fees expanded to medical devices, advice from professional negotiators on how to bring new tools to the negotiation table and overall lessons learned for all stakeholders.

    This book serves as a guide to stakeholders preparing for any user fee negotiation, whether it’s for a new program, or reauthorization of an existing one. The book draws on the institutional knowledge of many of the most experienced user fee negotiators, affording a unique 360-degree view of the evolving nature of such negotiations; it offers practical insights not only for those at the negotiating table, but for anyone involved in helping to shape, analyze, monitor or understand user fee programs.

  • This is a segment taken from the Program on Negotiation's "Negotiation Pedagogy Video Series, Part Two." In this video, MIT Professor Lawrence Susskind uses the case "Teflex Products" to teach an Executive Education Seminar about how to deal with an angry public.

  • Susskind, L., 2011. The Quarterly Magazine of the Association for Conflict Resolution. Dispute Resolution Magazine, 17(2), pp.24-26.

Year of Publication: 2010

  • An eight-party, environmentally-focused role-play simulation, Flooding deals with an investment firm that is in the final stages of a multi-year planning process for a large, riverside mixed-use development. FEMA recently updated Evantown’s Flood Insurance Rate Map and the development falls within the 100-year floodplain. In addition, a study by the local university concludes that altered precipitation patterns brought on by climate change will put more and more properties at risk of flooding in the future. Should the firm be allowed to go through with the development? How and to what extent should Evantown take measures to protect itself against flood risks? Who is responsible for paying for whatever adaptation measures are used to protect vulnerable areas?

  • This is a seven-party, integrative negotiation between stakeholders in a city over how to implement housing retrofits to enhance resilience to extreme heat in the aftermath of deadly heat waves attributed to climate change.

  • Six-party, multi-issue negotiation game involving environmental, economic, social, and political interests in a city where the water infrastructure is inefficient and not up to the task of coping with extreme water events. 
     

  • The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) has been identified as a model for natural resource management. We challenge that assertion, citing the lack of progress toward a long-term management plan for the dam, sustained extra-programmatic conflict, and a downriver ecology that is still in jeopardy, despite over ten years of meetings and an expensive research program. We have examined the primary and secondary sources available on the AMP’s design and operation in light of best practices identified in the literature on adaptive management and collaborative decision-making. We have identified six shortcomings: (1) an inadequate approach to identifying stakeholders; (2) a failure to provide clear goals and involve stakeholders in establishing the operating procedures that guide the collaborative process; (3) inappropriate use of professional neutrals and a failure to cultivate consensus; (4) a failure to establish and follow clear joint fact-finding procedures; (5) a failure to produce functional written agreements; and (6) a failure to manage the AMP adaptively and cultivate long-term problem-solving capacity.

  • Negotiation depends on communication. Whatever else goes on during a negotiation, parties attempt to manage their differences and reach agreements through exchanges of messages that make up sequences of moves and countermoves. Complementing language use, negotiation interaction is unavoidably situated within physical and social environments that can function as resources for negotiators: location (institutional, architectural), embodiment (posture, gesture, laughter, eye gaze), modes of communication (documents, symbol systems, telephones, e-mails), and social relationships. Furthermore, even the “mental” elements of negotiation (goals, planning and strategizing, emotional reactions, evaluating outcomes, etc.) are communicatively constituted, made public, and mutually understood in and through interaction. More than simply representing and conveying information, communication is the means by which social actors create meanings, outcomes, identities, and relationships.

  • Susskind, L., 2010. Complexity Science and Collaborative Decision Making. Negotiation Journal, 26(3), pp.367-370.

    In a recent book entitled Planning with Complexity, Judith Innes and David Booher (2010) make the case for a new way of knowing and deciding that they call collaborative rationality, an approach to problem solving that puts a premium on face-to-face dialogue and multiparty negotiation. Collaborative rationality involves interactions among a great many people with different perspectives, drawing on multiple sources of information, who manage to reach agreement. To explain how such broad-based collaboration is possible, Innes and Booher draw on insights from the field of complexity science.

  • Susskind, L. et al., 2010. Consensus Building. In Negotiate : reaching agreements over water. Negotiate : reaching agreements over water. IUCN.

    Water practitioners are increasingly called upon to negotiate workable agreements about how to best use, manage and care for water resources. NEGOTIATE makes the case for constructive engagement and cooperative forms of negotiation in dealing with complex water issues. It unpacks constructive approaches such as Multi-Stakeholder Platforms (MSPs) and consensus building, and finally focuses on the diversity of agreements which can be produced to regulate or encourage fairer and more effective water allocation and use.

    This guide aims to provide practical tools for government officials, NGOs and local communities to create platforms for negotiations that are balanced and open, in order to arrive at collaborative action to improve water resources management.The book contains a brief overview of theory in this field, followed by practical tools and steps to change power relations. It describes how to analyse the issues and political play involved, convince colleagues and stakeholders, set up campaigns and advocacy, set in place participatory methods, enter negotiations, and move towards a multi-stakeholder platform for action.

  • Susskind, L. & Pekar, M., 2010. ESSEC Business School Interview, ESSEC Business School.

    Interview of Lawrence Susskind, Ford Professor of Urban and Environmental Planning at the MIT, Keynote speaker during the Conference : "Organizations Change in response to Environmental Demands" held at ESSEC Business School on March 23, 2010

  • An insight into how the OECD works with business, unions and civil society to make sure that global companies act responsibly wherever they operate around the world.

  • Negotiation analysts have increasingly focused on the internal decision-making dynamics in the minds of the parties. They ought to give more attention to the ways in which meaning is jointly constituted through sequences of verbal and nonverbal exchanges. The tools of conversation analysis (CA) and discourse analysis (DA) can be helpful in this regard.

  • National Public Radio featured a story this week about growing opposition to renewable energy facilities, particularly wind power. Wind advocates were asked how they might overcome such local opposition -- dubbed the NIMBY syndrome -- in the future. The spokesperson said, "We've got to get in there earlier and educate people." Wrong! How arrogant! You think people are opposed because they don't understand? No, they're opposed because the "costs" and "impacts" ON THEM are likely to outweigh the likely benefits TO THEM. The only way to overcome the NIMBY syndrome, regardless of the type of facility, is to make sure that the overwhelming majority of people in the area believe that the benefits TO THEM if the facility is built will outweigh the costs and impacts THEY are likely to experience.

  • Cities, particularly those in coastal areas around the world, need to pay close attention to the risks posed by global warming and climate change. These risks are substantial, and the costs of not taking them into account are likely to be enormous. Planners should take the lead in preparing climate mitigation and adaptation plans, although these need to be approached somewhat differently from other planning assignments. Adaptation planning, in particular, should be viewed as a collective risk management task. As such, new tools for collaboration such as scenario planning, joint fact-finding and the use of role-play simulations to build public support in the face of high levels of uncertainty and complexity might be helpful.

  • State officials in Maryland realize that efforts to adapt to climate change require local support. They also understand that the uncertainty and complexity surrounding climate change make it hard for localities to reach agreement on what to do. Larry Susskind and Evan Paul of MIT worked with state officials to design a role-play simulation—that other states can now use— to help local leaders figure out how to manage climate change risks.

Year of Publication: 2009

  • Companies that consistently negotiate more valuable agreements "in ways that protect key relationships" enjoy an important but often overlooked competitive advantage. Until now, most companies have sought to improve their negotiation outcomes by sending individuals to training workshops. Using real-world examples from leading companies, this book shows a more powerful and less expensive way to achieve this.

    In Built to Win, authors Susskind and Movius argue that negotiation must be a strategic core competency. Drawing on their decades of training and consulting work, as well as a robust theory of negotiation, the authors provide a step-by-step model for building organizational competence. They show why the approach of "training and more training" is a weak strategy. They describe the organizational barriers that so often plague even experienced negotiators, and recommend ways of overcoming them. Built to Win explains the crucial role that leaders must play in setting goals, aligning incentives, pinpointing metrics, and supporting learning platforms to promote long-term success. A final chapter provides practical "how-to" tools to help you start your own organizational improvement process.

  • Susskind, L., 2009. Deliberative Democracy and Dispute Resolution. Ohio State Journal On Dispute Resolution, Vol. 24, Issue 3, 2009: 1-12., 24(3), pp.1-12.

    Imagine the following: a small city of about 30,000 must decide whether to allow construction of a controversial industrial facility. The plant will generate sorely needed jobs and tax revenue, but it might also pose serious environmental and public-health risks. Under normal circumstances, the city council would require the developer to undertake a set of technical studies that city departments would review before a permit could be granted. Then, the city government (including several elected and/or appointed boards) might hold a hearing, and ultimately vote on whether to approve the project. Along the way, there might be a lot of letters to the editor of the local newspaper and even a referendum. 

  • Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

    French Language Edition

  • Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

    Russian Language Edition

  • Susskind, L. & Crump, L., 2009. Multiparty Negotiation, SAGE Publications.

    Multiparty negotiation is a rapidly developing but complex field whose literature is scattered across a broad range of disciplines and sources. This four-volume collection consolidates this knowledge by bringing together classic works and cutting-edge papers from law, international politics, organization studies and public administration.

    Volume One: Multiparty Negotiation: An Introduction to Theory and Practice

    Volume Two: Public Dispute Resolution

    Volume Three: Organizational and Group Negotiations

    Volume Four: Complex Legal Transactions and International Negotiations

  • An unscripted video showing an experienced negotiation professor teaching an executive education session through the running and debriefing of the Teflex Products role simulation, interspersed with instructor commentary

  • Susskind, L. et al., 2009. The Environment and Environmentalism. In Local Planning: Contemporary Principles and Practice. Local Planning: Contemporary Principles and Practice. ICMA Press, pp. 74-80.

    Local Planning is the all-new edition of the popular book, The Practice of Local Government Planning, which has been the valued resource for preparing for the AICP exam. This new edition helps the reader understand the complexities of planning at the local level, and prepare to make decisions in a challenging environment. The eight chapters in Local Planning, roughly spanning from context to applications, consists of articles written by a wide range of experts-academics, practitioners, clients, and observers of planning. Many examples of planning in action illustrate central principles.

  • Over the past twenty-five years, public dispute resolution has emerged as an important area of practice — linked, in part, to ongoing efforts to promote deliberative democracy. As the field has evolved, however, the market for public dispute mediators has shifted. It is already possible to glimpse the further shifts and the new intellectual challenges likely to face the public dispute resolution field over the next twenty-five years.

  • Over the past twenty-five years, public dispute resolution has emerged as an important area of practice — linked, in part, to ongoing efforts to promote deliberative democracy.As the field has evolved, however, the market for public dispute mediators has shifted. It is already possible to glimpse the further shifts and the new intellectual challenges likely to face the public dispute resolution field over the next twenty-five years.

  • Five-person nonscorable mediation between an employee and his/her corporate employer regarding potentially conflicting values and interests around issues of homosexuality and religious faith

Year of Publication: 2008

  • Susskind, L. & Anguelovski, I., 2008. Addressing the Land Claims of Indigenous People, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Program on Human Rights and Justice.

    Indigenous people have lived in the same locations for hundreds, if not thousands of years. The national governments involved either refuse to recognize the land claims of indigenous people or are only willing to settle claims in ways unacceptable to them. However, unless these claims are resolved in such a way that First Peoples gain control sufficient, at the very least, to maintain their language and culture, they will disappear. In this paper, we explore 14 cases of indigenous land claims, concentrating on the strategies that these First Nations have pursued and the responses they have received from the dominant cultures that surround them. Our goal is to understand the preconditions for effectively resolving the land claims of indigenous peoples around the world.

  • Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

    Chinese Language Edition

  • Susskind, L. & Susskind, N., 2008. Connecting Theory and Practice. Negotiation Journal, 24(2), pp.201-209.

    Social psychologist Kurt Lewin famously said, “There is nothing so practical as a good theory.” Too often, unfortunately, negotiation scholars and practitioners cannot agree on the meaning of good. Some academics look down their noses at what they regard as the limited and anecdotal knowledge of practitioners, while some practitioners think ivory-tower intellectuals quibble about abstractions or conduct toy experiments instead of grappling with the complex challenges of the real world. Many theoreticians and practitioners hold less extreme stances, of course, and a theory–practice gap might be the product not just of disrespect but methodological disputes, specialized and inaccessible professional languages, institutional distance, simple ignorance, or lack of opportunities for cross-pollination.

  • Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

    Japanese Language Edition

  • A six-party, seven-person (including the mediator), multi-issue mediation among representatives of governmental, business, environmental, recreational, and tribal interests regarding a dispute over developing an instream flow action plan

  • Susskind, L., 2008. Strengthening the Global Environmental Treaty System. Issues in Science and Technology, 25(1). Available at: http://issues.org/25-1/susskind/.

    Despite the huge media attention environmental treaties receive, the system of making and implementing them is barely functioning.

  • Record numbers of Americans fear that our political process is broken―for good reason. Our nation faces unprecedented challenges, yet our politicians spend most of their energy attacking one another. All the while, no one in public life has offered a practical way to neutralize the bitter partisanship that paralyzes Washington.The Cure for Our Broken Political Process fills that void. The authors show exactly how concerned citizens can get politicians from all camps to negotiate genuine solutions to the most vexing issues. Sol Erdman and Lawrence Susskind base their case on their thirty years of experience in resolving political conflict.The Cure begins with hard evidence that our country could work out practical solutions to nearly every major issue that now divides us, solutions that all sides could support. Why, then, don’t our politicians seek out those solutions? The authors debunk all the accepted explanations and then uncover the real reason. By telling the story of a concerned citizen who runs for Congress, the book shows that two basic features of our elections virtually compel politicians to bicker endlessly over major problems. So, as long as our elections work as they do today, our lawmakers will keep on fighting, leaving the critical issues unresolved.The authors then spell out how to redesign elections so that politicians would win only if they produced useful results―only if they negotiated practical solutions to pressing problems. The book concludes with a step-by-step plan proving that ordinary citizens have the power to bring about these changes. To anyone who fears that our country’s future is in peril, The Cure offers a realistic path to a political process they can genuinely believe in.

  • Transboundary Environmental Negotiation is an important collection of articles generated by faculty and graduate students at MIT, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, and the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School. The contributors emphasize the ways in which global environmental treaty-making can be improved. They highlight new environmental problems that pose difficult global negotiation challenges and suggest new strategies for involving a range of nongovernmental actors in ways that can overcome the obstacles to transboundary environmentalism.

  • Six-person, non-scorable negotiation simulation focused on mediating values-based legal disputes, specifically disputes involving conflicting views and values regarding homosexuality and religious faith.

  • Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

    Portuguese Language Edition

Year of Publication: 2007

  • At a reception honoring his service as the chairman of the House Science Committee in November 2006, retiring Representative Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY) quipped that Washington “is a town where people say they are for science-based decisionmaking until the overwhelming scientific consensus leads to a politically inconvenient conclusion.”1 He added, “We should be guided by sound science. We shouldn’t have politics determining science.” While few in the scientific community or the public at large would disagree with this argument, a problem arises when parties involved in a dispute disagree on what science has found or on the very definition of “sound science.”

  • The Committee to Assess Environmental Activities at MIT was chartered to recommend a way forward in coordinating and expanding the scope of environmental activities at the Institute. Currently, there is an impressive array of outstanding research and educational endeavors that span all schools, but lack of coordination results in low visibility and the perception of sub-critical mass, and at an institutional level MIT is not viewed as being among the leaders in this field. MIT’s commitment to the environment, and the related area of sustainability, must emphasize the integration of its research, practice, and teaching strengths across the Institute. The Committee recommends a shared vision to unite environmental studies: Creating a Sustainable Earth: An MIT Research, Teaching, and Public Service Initiative for Understanding, Restoring and Managing the Environment. This initiative will involve the breadth of MIT in understanding the environment and using this increased knowledge to design a sustainable future. Positioning this initiative for success will require a new organizational structure that must be at once “top down”, ensuring buy-in from the senior Administration, and “bottom up”, enabling faculty members to claim ownership. Environmental activities should be integrated to the extent possible with the Energy Initiative, to maximize intellectual synergies. By organizing optimally and expanding appropriately, MIT will greatly enhance its ability to provide a breadth of balanced scientific, technical, economic and policy analyses on issues relating the environment and sustainability and their relationship to energy

  • Page, W. & Susskind, L., 2007. Five Important Themes in the Special Issue on Planning for Water. Journal of the American Planning Association, 73(2).

    Half the world’s population now lives in urban areas, and the trend toward greater urbanization shows no signs of abating. Among the many diffi- culties facing planners seeking to accommodate continued development, finding adequate water supplies will be among the most critical. As Jerry Anthony points out in his paper in this issue, one in five people in the developing world does not have access to safe drinking water, and efforts at planning for water over the last three decades have not improved that desperate condition. There are reliable estimates that more than a billion people get water for drinking, washing, and cooking from sources polluted by human and animal feces. We are unable to provide adequate water for drinking, sanitation, or agriculture for four to five billion people, yet within a few decades the world’s population will double or triple. Global climate change will likely have its most serious impacts on precipitation patterns, reducing water in many parts of the world. 

  • Susskind, L. et al., 2007. Integrating Scientific Information, Stakeholder Interests, and Political Concerns in Resource and Environmental Planning and Management. In Integrated Resource and Environmental Management: Concepts and Practice. Integrated Resource and Environmental Management: Concepts and Practice. Oxford University Press.

    The aim of this volume is to provide a coherent set of chapters that address major issues in resource and environmental management. The book has a North American focus with significant, but not exclusive Canadian Content. 'Integration' is the organizing theme of the volume. Integration as a concept (meaning variously integration across disciplines, across agencies, and across sectors) has been a key theme in the policy and management rhetoric of virtually every agency in North America and abroad for more than 30 years. As one of the dominant themes of the discipline, integration has been addressed both as a component and as the main focus of a variety of texts for this course. However, there is nothing on the market at the moment that is both up-to-date and North American in approach.

  • Six-person facilitated negotiation among representatives of the city, state, developer, insurer, and victims' families regarding the redevelopment of the World Trade Center site following the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.

  • These remarks were prepared for and delivered at the Second Annual Fordham University School of Law Dispute Resolution Society Symposium on October 12, 2007. The Address discusses how democracy, public dispute resolution, and social justice fit together. The speaker opens with an example of a small city making a decision about a large industrial development project from the perspective of a traditional model and a consensus-oriented model. He then addresses three major problems with the first: (i) the majority rule problem; (ii) the representation problem; and (iii) the adversarial format problem. The speaker goes on to advocate for the consensusbuilding model, followed by a Question and Answer session.

  • A group of legal, business, and dispute resolution professionals negotiate a six-person, facilitated role simulation regarding the reconstruction of the World Trade Center site in New York City, following the 9/11/2001 terrorist attacks.

  • Traditional approaches to resolving coastal resource management disputes in the United States often produce less-than-optimal outcomes. Nonadjudicatory approaches such as policy dialogues and mediation can be more effective. This article presents four case studies of such approaches that have proven successful in resolving coastal resource management disputes in Massachusetts, California, and Oregon. These approaches emphasize consensus-building, are based on face-to- face discussions between contending stakeholders, and include important roles for planners as negotiators and mediators. The article describes four barriers to more widespread use of less adversarial forms of dispute resolution and suggests ways of overcoming those barriers.

Year of Publication: 2006

  • Susskind, L., 2006. Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning Distinguished Educator Award –Acceptance Speech. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 25(3), pp.329-330.
  • Susskind, L. & Cruikshank, J., 2006. Breaking Robert’s Rules, Oxford University Press.

    Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

  • I am a member of a traditional religious community. Like most communities of faith, mine has secular bylaws that govern its operation. And just like any not-for-profit organization, the thirty-year-old bylaws of the congregation to which I belong call for the election of officers, an annual members' meeting, and the appointment of numerous committees. In many respects, the approach to decision making mandated by our bylaws follows the model of a New England town meeting. That is, there is a chair (our elected president), a parliamentarian (selected by the chair), and a requirement that we adhere to Robert's Rules of Order in deciding who speaks, what the speaker is allowed to say, and how members can vote.

  • Public policy dispute resolution (PPDR) practitioners are a special lot. Unlike dispute resolution specialists who get involved in disputes between private parties, PPDR practitioners work on the most politically charged issues of the day... Many political philosophers... advocate something called deliberative democracy that gives new meaning to PPDR practitioners, for it suggests that what they are doing is nothing less than deepening and broadening our commitment to the fundamental tenets of democracy itself.

  • Highlights of dialogue from a two-day workshop on deliberative democracy and dispute resolution approaches to civic engagement

Year of Publication: 2005

  • Susskind, L. et al., 2005. Arguing, Bargaining and Getting Agreement. In Oxford Handbook of Public Policy. Oxford Handbook of Public Policy. Oxford University Press.

    Public policy is the business end of political science. It is where theory meets practice in the pursuit of the public good. Political scientists approach public policy in myriad ways. Some approach the policy process descriptively, asking how the need for public intervention comes to be perceived, a policy response formulated, enacted, implemented, and, all too often, subverted, perverted, altered, or abandoned. Others approach public policy more prescriptively, offering politically-informed suggestions for how normatively valued goals can and should be pursued, either through particular policies or through alternative processes for making policy. Some offer their advice from the Olympian heights of detached academic observers, others as 'engaged scholars' cum advocates, while still others seek to instill more reflective attitudes among policy practitioners themselves toward their own practices. The Oxford Handbook of Public Policy mines all these traditions, using an innovative structure that responds to the very latest scholarship. Its chapters touch upon institutional and historical sources and analytical methods, how policy is made, how it is evaluated and how it is constrained. In these ways, the Handbook shows how the combined wisdom of political science as a whole can be brought to bear on political attempts to improve the human condition.

  • Two-team, six-party, four-issue negotiation between representatives of two corporations setting up a simultaneous high-tech joint venture and purchasing agreement.

  • This volume is an essential, cutting-edge reference for all practitioners, students, and teachers in the field of dispute resolution. Each chapter was written specifically for this collection and has never before been published. The contributors--drawn from a wide range of academic disciplines--contains many of the most prominent names in dispute resolution today, including Frank E. A. Sander, Carrie Menkel-Meadow, Bruce Patton, Lawrence Susskind, Ethan Katsh, Deborah Kolb, and Max Bazerman. The Handbook of Dispute Resolution contains the most current thinking about dispute resolution. It synthesizes more than thirty years of research into cogent, practitioner-focused chapters that assume no previous background in the field. At the same time, the book offers path-breaking research and theory that will interest those who have been immersed in the study or practice of dispute resolution for years. The Handbook also offers insights on how to understand disputants. It explores how personality factors, emotions, concerns about identity, relationship dynamics, and perceptions contribute to the escalation of disputes. The volume also explains some of the lessons available from viewing disputes through the lens of gender and cultural differences.

  • Improvisation can be an important element of mediation practice,and there are several ways in which mediation practice correlates to improvisational performance.In this article,two mediation experts and two skilled jazz musicians explore the improvisational aspects of mediation.Two central themes emerge:(1) mediators often use impro-visational techniques,and (2) by being improvisational,mediators can create environments that would encourage the parties themselves

  • Whether or not it will be possible to relocate settlers from the “territories” depends not just on the willingness of the relevant Israeli officials to authorize evacuation of some or all of the West Bank and Gaza given the violence it may cause, but especially on the thinking and the changing attitudes of the settlers themselves. Only by understanding the views of the current settlers — their motivations, their beliefs, and the differences among them — will it be possible to formulate a sensible relocation strategy. That was the focus of the conference's first panel.

  • An individual's perception of risk develops from his or her values, beliefs, and experiences. Social scientists have identified factors that affect perceptions of risk, such as whether the risk is knowable (uncertainty), voluntary (can the individual control exposure?), and equitable (how fairly is the risk distributed?). There are measurable differences in how technical experts and citizen stakeholders define and assess risk. Citizen knowledge and technical expertise are both relevant to assessing risk; thus, the 2002 National Research Council panel on biosolids recommended stakeholder involvement in biosolids risk assessments. A survey in 2002 identified some of the factors that influence an individual's perception of the risks involved in a neighbor's use of biosolids. Risk communication was developed to address the gap between experts and the public in knowledge of technical topics. Biosolids management and research may benefit from applications of current risk communication theory that emphasizes (i) two-way communications (dialogue); (ii) that the public has useful knowledge and concerns that need to be acknowledged; and (iii) that what may matter most is the credibility of the purveyor of information and the levels of trustworthiness, fairness, and respect that he or she (or the organization) demonstrates, which can require cultural change. Initial experiences in applying the dialogue and cultural change stages of risk communication theory--as well as consensus-building and joint fact-finding--to biosolids research suggest that future research outcomes can be made more useful to decision-makers and more credible to the broader public. Sharing control of the research process with diverse stakeholders can make research more focused, relevant, and widely understood.

  • Two-party, two-issue, integrative, scoreable negotiation over the terms of a telecommunications services contract.

Year of Publication: 2004

  • Susskind, L., Menkel-Meadow, C. & Wheeler, M., 2004. Expanding the Ethical Obligations of the Mediator: Mediator Accountability to Parties Not at the Table. In What's Fair: Ethics for Negotiators. What's Fair: Ethics for Negotiators. Jossey-Bass.

    What's Fair is a landmark collection that focuses exclusively on the crucial topic of ethics in negotiation. Edited by Carrie J. Menkel-Meadow and Michael Wheeler, What's Fair contains contributions from some of the best-known practitioners and scholars in the field including Roger Fisher, Howard Raiffa, and Deborah Kolb. The editors and distinguished contributors offer an examination of why ethics matter individually and socially, and explain the essential duties and values of negotiation beyond formal legal requirements. Throughout the book, these experts tackle difficult questions such as:

    What do we owe our counterparts (if anything) in the way of candor or disclosure?

    To what extent should we use financial or legal pressure to force settlement?

    Should we worry about whether an agreement is fair to all the parties, or the effects our negotiated agreements might have on others?

  • How can metropolitan areas address the complexities of development that transcend the capabilities of individual local governments, especially when building consensus on initiatives that cross political boundaries is so difficult? The history of efforts to address metropolitan growth in terms of ensuring housing affordability, open-space preservation and timely investment in infrastructure shows that no single entity or level of government can adequately address such issues on its own. In addition, even when regional and metropolitan governments, created specifically for this purpose, try to impose "regional solutions" they are likely to meet fierce municipal resistance. Instead, what is required are collaborative efforts to generate tailored solutions that involve all relevant decision-makers and stakeholders.

Year of Publication: 2003

  • This exercise is a six-party simulation of multiparty negotiations in a bankruptcy (reorganization) and mass torts context. The simulation represents a version of such negotiations which take place in the shadow of the Bankruptcy Code, with roles, interests and issues that have been stylized for educational purposes. In this exercise, a genetically-modified food producer has been sued by multiple consumers of its food products and is forced to file for bankruptcy protection in order to automatically stay (i.e., suspend) the flood of tort (i.e., personal injury) claims brought against the company, as well as those claims of the company’s secured and unsecured creditors.

  • Susskind, L., van der Wansem, M. & Ciccarelli, A., 2003. Mediating Land Use Disputes in the United States: Pros and Cons. Environments: a Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Special Issue on Collaborative Planning and Sustainable Resource Management: The North American Experience, 31(2), pp.39-58.

    This report is one in a series of policy focus reports published by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy to address timely public policy issues relating to land use, property taxation and the value of land. Each report is designed to bridge the gap between theory and practice by combining research, case studies and personal experiences from scholars in a variety of academic disciplines and from professional practitioners, local officials and citizens in different types of communities.

  • Susskind, L. et al., 2003. Multistakeholder Dialogue at the Global Scale. International Negotiation Journal, 8(2), pp.235-266.

    Multistakeholder Dialogues (MSDs) are being used as part of many international policy-making efforts. Official and unofficial representatives are being brought together to build relationships, set agendas for future official and unofficial dialogues, and even to generate packages of proposals or recommendations. The authors describe the key challenges that face prospective MSD designers, including: finding the right participants, managing with extremely limited financial resources, providing effective meeting facilitation, and integrating the work of MSDs into existing institutional activities and structures. While there are examples of successful MSDs that contribute to official policymaking, too many multistakeholder dialogues founder because the participants are inadequately prepared, the processes are managed ineffectively, and expectations are unrealistic.

  • Susskind, L. et al., 2003. What Do We Know about Training World Class Negotiators?. In The Change Champion's Field Guide: Strategies and Tools for Leading Change in Your Organization. The Change Champion's Field Guide: Strategies and Tools for Leading Change in Your Organization. Wiley.

    Nearly a decade later, leading change pioneers in the field have realigned to bring you the second edition of the Change Champion's Fieldguide.
      
    This thoroughly revised and updated edition of the Change Champion's Field Guide is filled with the information, tools, and strategies needed to implement a best practice change or leadership development initiative where everyone wins. In forty-five chapters, the guide's contributors, widely acknowledged as the "change champions" and leaders in the fields of organizational change and leadership development, explore the competencies and practices that define an effective change leader. Change Champions such as Harrison Owen, Edgar Schein, Marv Weisbord, Sandra Janoff, Mary Eggers, William Rothwell, Dave Ulrich, Marshall Goldsmith, Judith Katz, Peter Koestenbaum, Dick Axelrod, David Cooperrider, and scores of others provide their sage advice, practical applications, and examples of change methods that work.

Year of Publication: 2002

  • Laws, D. et al., 2002. Expert Views on Sustainability and Technology Implementation . Natural and Social Science Interface (UNS).

    Twenty-one senior faculty members and researchers were interviewed about their con-ception of sustainability and their understanding of implementation in projects linked to theAlliance of Global Sustainability, a joint project of MIT (Boston), ETH (Zurich and Lausanne), UT(Tokyo), and Chalmers (Gothenburg).

    We identified five complementary views on sustainability, i.e. i) science is sustainable per se , ii) sustainability is an ethical relationship with the past and future , iii ) sustainability is themaintenance of a system within functional limits , iv ) eco-efficiency , v ) sustainability is a form of ongoing inquiry . In total, the conception of ethical relationship was the most dominant concep-tion whereas science per se and eco-efficiency were less used. Researchers with a natural sciencebackground raised more aspects of sustainability and more emphasized limit management Eco-efficiency is important for professors with a social science but not for those with a natural sci-ence background.

    Most of the researchers regarded implementation as the process whereby their workcomes into contact with social groups and processes and where concerns about taking actionand social technology change became prominent. The interviewed researchers considered suc-cessful implementation to be linked to value change, efficient information policy, institutionalaction but not regulations and supposed technology implementation to creates new alloca-tions, i.e. winners and losers.

    The relationship between knowledge and action is considered central in views on imple-mentation. Three different conceptions and habits could be identified with respect to this rela-tionship, i.e. a) action: I act to change the world ; b) interaction, I exchange information with my environment through my actions , c) transaction or mutual learning. I change as a result of my effort to bring about change in the word.

Year of Publication: 2001

  • Environmental policy studies commissioned by government agencies or other stakeholders can play a vital role in environmental decisionmaking; they provide much-needed insight into policy options and specific recommendations for action. But the results of even the most rigorous studies are frequently misappropriated or misunderstood and are as likely to confuse an issue as they are to clarify it.

    Better Environmental Policy Studies explores this problem, as it considers the shortcomings of current approaches to policy studies and presents a pragmatic new approach to the subject. Reviewing five cases that are widely regarded as the most effective policy studies to have been conducted in the United States in the last few decades, the authors present a comprehensive guide to the concepts and methods required for conducting effective policy studies. The book:

    • describes and explains the conventional approach to policy studies and its shortcoming
    • presents the history, impacts, and common elements of five successful policy studies
    • offers an in-depth look at the different tools and techniques of policy analysis
    • extends the concepts and principles of successful policy studies to their potential uses in the international arena

    Better Environmental Policy Studies presents a practical, battle-tested approach to overcoming the obstacles to formulating effective environmental policy. It is an invaluable resource for students and faculty in departments of environmental studies, public policy and administration, and planning, as well as for professional policy analysts and others involved with making decisions and mediating disputes over environmental issues.

  • Every day in communities across America hundreds of committees, boards, church groups, and social clubs hold meetings where they spend their time engaged in shouting matches and acrimonious debate. Whether they are aware of it or not, the procedures that most such groups rely on to reach decisions were first laid out as Robert's Rules more than 150 years ago by an officer in the U.S. Army's Corps of Engineers. Its arcane rituals of parliamentary procedure and majority rule usually produce a victorious majority and a very dissatisfied minority that expects to raise its concerns, again, at the next possible meeting.

    Breaking Robert's Rules clearly spells out how any group can work together effectively. After briefly explaining the problems created by Robert's Rules, the guide outlines the five key steps toward consensus building, and addresses the specific problems that often get in the way of a group's progress. Appendices include a basic one page "Handy Guide" that can be distributed at meetings and a case study demonstrating how the ideas presented in the book can also be applied in a corporate context.

    Written in a non-technical and engaging style, and containing clear ideas and instructions that anyone can understand and use, this one-of-a-kind guide will prove an essential tool for any group desperate to find ways of making their meetings more effective. In addition, neighborhood associations, ad hoc committees, social clubs, and other informal groups lacking a clear hierarchy will find solid advice on how to move forward without resorting to "majority rules" or bickering over who will take leadership positions. Bound to become a classic, Breaking Robert's Rules will change the way you hold meetings forever, paving the way for efficiency, efficacy, and peaceful decision making.

    Italian Language Edition

  • A facilitated multi-party negotiation among government officials regarding the design of a foreign direct investment strategy that balances economic, societal, and environmental concerns

  • Susskind, L. & Nagel, S.S., 2001. Super-Optimization: A New Approach to National Environmental Policymaking. In Handbook of Public Policy Evaluation. Handbook of Public Policy Evaluation. SAGE Publications.

    Handbook of Public Policy Evaluation is the only book of its kind to present aspects of public policy evaluation that relate to economic, technology, social, political, international, and legal problems. Rather than looking at specific narrowly focused programs, this book emphasizes broad-based evaluation theory, study, and application, providing a rich variety of exceptional insights and ideas.

  • This case study seeks to explain why environmental justice organizations pursue legal remedies even when pursuit of legal claims continually fails to meet primary organizational objectives. We rely on analytic narrative, the modeling of processes that explain outcomes through the building of complex stories, for our explanation of this phenomenon. Specifically, this research traces the use of a litigation strategy used by the West Dallas Coalition for Environmental Justice, identifying “the actors, the decision points they faced, the choices they made, the paths taken and shunned, and the manner in which their choices generated events and outcomes.” Previous accounts of environmental justice litigation, focusing primarily on legal outcomes, have painted a sobering picture. In reference to the predominant legal strategy of the day, one commentator concluded that “[b]y 1998 no one had yet succeeded in bringing, and winning, a substantive Title VI environmental justice case in court.” Yet, litigation remains a strategy of choice for many environmental justice groups.
     

Year of Publication: 2000

Year of Publication: 1999

  • Since 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has struggled to implement an experiment in regulatory reinvention it calls Project XL ("Excellence in Leadership"). In doing so, EPA is experimenting with regulatory reform based on the theory of "adaptive management", a theory that can conflict with EPA's "command and control" enforcement philosophy.(1) Project XL attempts to implement an adaptive management approach by planning "experiments" and monitoring their results for lessons that can be used to guide reform of regulatory systems. Proponents hope to encourage the private sector to collaborate with EPA to plan, run and monitor experiments in environmental compliance, rethink regulation and apply new technologies. To date, this has not occurred to the extent that XL's designers had hoped.

  • Two-team, four-issue negotiation between three members of a Native Canadian band and three representatives of Calgary Central Gas over a planned pipeline through the band's reservation; includes internal team negotiations as well as external negotiation.

  • Dealing With an Angry Public: The Mutual Gains Approach to Resolving Disputes Some portion of the American public will react negatively to almost any new corporate initiative, as Disney discovered when it announced its plans to build an historical theme park in Virginia. Similarly, government efforts to change policy or shift budget priorities are invariably met with stiff resistance. In this enormously practical book, Lawrence Susskind and Patrick Field analyze scores of both private and public-sector cases, as well as crisis scenarios such as the Alaskan oil spill, the silicone breat implant controversy, and nuclear plant malfunction at Three Mile Island. They show how resistance to both public and private initiatives can be overcome by a mutual gains approach involving face-to-face negotiation, a strategy applied successfully by over fifteen hundred executives and officials who have attended Professor Susskind's MIT-Harvard "Angry Public" seminars. Susskind and Field outline the six key elements of this approach in order to help business and government leaders negotiate, rather than fight, with their critics. In the process, they show how to identify who the public is, whose concerns to address first, which people and organizations must be convinced of the legitimacy of action taken, and how to assess and respond to different types of anger effectively. Acknowledging the crucial role played by the media in shaping public perception and understanding, Susskind and Field suggest a way to develop media interaction which is consistent with the six mutual gains principles, and also discuss the type of leadership that corporate and government managers must provide in order to combine these ideas into a useful whole. We all need to be concerned about a society in which the public's concerns, fears and anger are not adequately addressed. When corporate and government agencies must spend crucial time and resources on rehashing and defending each decision they make, a frustrated and angry public contributes to the erosion of confidence in our basic institutions and undermines our competitiveness in the international marketplace. In this valuable book, Susskind and Field have produced a strong, clear framework which will help reduce these hidden costs for hundreds of executives, managers, elected and appointed officials, entrepreneurs, and the public relations, legal and other professionals who advise them.

  • Seven-person, non-scoreable, facilitated negotiation among planners, regulators and activists regarding the cleanup and redevelopment of environmentally contaminated property

  • When business leaders, government officials, and other stakeholders come to the table in an environmental, health, or safety dispute, acrimony often results, leading to expensive and time-consuming litigation. Not only does this waste precious resources, but rarely does the process produce the best outcome for any of the parties involved.

    For the past five years, the authors of this volume have conducted semi-annual seminars at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology and at Harvard to provide business leaders and regulators with the knowledge and skills they need to more effectively handle environmental, health, and safety negotiations. Their strategy, known as the "mutual gains approach," is a proven method of producing fairer, more efficient, more stable, and wiser results. Negotiating Environmental Agreements provides the first comprehensive introduction to this widely practiced and highly effective approach to environmental regulation.

    The book begins with an overview of the mutual gains approach, introducing important concepts and ideas from negotiation theory as well as the theory and practice of mediation. The authors then offer five model negotiations from their MIT-Harvard Public Disputes seminar, followed by a series of real-world negotiated environmental agreements that illustrate the kinds of outcomes possible when the mutual gains approach is employed. A collection of writings by leading experts provide valuable insights into the process, and appendixes offer both instructions for conducting model negotiation sessions and analysis of actual game results from earlier seminars.

    This is the only prescriptive text available for the many regulatees and regulators involved in environmental regulatory negotiations each year. Anyone involved with environmental negotiation -- including corporate and public sector managers, students of environmental policy, environmental management, and business management -- will find the book an essential resource.

  • Negotiating onBehalf of Others explores current negotiation theory, providing a framework for understanding the complexity of negotiating for others.

    Negotiation agents are broadly defined to include legislators, diplomats, salepersons, lawyers, committe chairs -- in fact anyone who represents others in negotiation.

    Leading figures in the field examine the following areas in depth: labour-management relations; international diplomacy; sports agents; legislative process; and agency law

    The book concludes with suggestions for future research and specific advice for practitioners.

  • Seven-person, multi-issue mediation among business, planning, environmental, and agricultural interests regarding growth management and comprehensive planning

  • This handbook on group decision-making for those wanting to operate in a consensus fashion stresses the advantages of informal, common sense approaches to working together. It describes how any group can put these approaches into practice, and relates numerous examples of situations in which such approaches have been applied.

Year of Publication: 1998

Year of Publication: 1996

  • Six-person facilitated integrative negotiation among advocates for homeless people, community and business leaders, and a foundation regarding the allocation of a grant to alleviate local homelessness problems

  • Twelve-person, two-round negotiation between six foundation board members and six school board and community leaders over efforts to address racial disparities in academic performance; internal negotiations precede external

  • Two-team, ten-person, multi-issue, co-chaired negotiation between representatives of two adjacent countries regarding the transboundary management of a severe water shortage crisis

  • Ten-party, multi-issue negotiation among government, development, industry, labor, and preservation interests over port improvements, real-estate development, and environmental protection in a Caribbean island harbor expansion

  • The impact of cities on the environment increasingly dominates the debate on sustainability. Most global and regional environmental problems originate in cities. Cities concentrate increasing numbers of people and human activities; thus, they import increasing amounts of natural resources and export vast quantities of emissions and waste. Urbanization also entails major changes in the way people use natural resources. While it accelerates the transition from traditional to modern fuels, it also intensifies the use of energy and its environmental impacts. Indeed, a nation's levels of energy use and greenhouse emissions are both positively correlated with its urbanization level (Jones 1991; Hosier et al. 1993; Parikh and Shukla 1995). On the other hand, cities provide major opportunities to achieve economies of scale and use natural resources more efficiently. Compact urban settlements, for example, are generally more energy efficient than dispersed ones(Owens 1986; Newman and Kenworthy 1989, 1990; Lowe 1991; Gilbert1992). Thus, the way cities are designed and managed can be crucial to sustainability.

  • Bargaining in the international arena is intrinsically positional. Negotiators are often instructed by their governments not to improvise or explore new options when they meet with their counterparts—even though the invention of additional tradeoffs or packages might well produce “better” results for all sides. This article describes an approach that we call “parallel informal negotiation” which encourages a collaborative effort between contending groups that were officially not even allowed to interact: international trade and environment policy makers.

  • With the Cold War won, the economy strong, and democracy triumphant, the United States should be enjoying the taste of victory and the fruits of peace. Instead, we are politically demoralized. No matter how important an issue Congress confronts, it produces, at best, showpiece legislation of dubious merit. More often, opposing sides simpy lock horns and nothing is resolved.

    Despite a rising tide of anti-incumbency, threats of term limits and an unending barrage of public blame, little is destined to improve on Capitol Hill. The structure of Congress, not just its membership, is unequal to its task. No matter who is in power, negative election campaigns, deceptive platforms, voters driven by frustration, and opposition for opposition's sake will determine national policy. Congress as now structured cannot represent who we are as a nation, what we need or the best within us.

    The United States has adjusted to a changing world many times with great success. The time for major change has again arrived. Reinventing Congress for the 21st Century shows how conflicts between national priorities could be soundly managed at the core of our political system. Based on the work of the MIT-Harvard Public Disputes Program, the book's inquiry parallels models adopted by the most successful American enterprises. Disturbing in its analysis and hopeful in the possibilities it envisions, Reinventing Congress offers achievable blueprint - a responsible legislature chosen by a responsible citizenry.

  • Field, P., Raiffa, H. & Susskind, L., 1996. Risk and Justice: Rethinking the Concept of Compensation. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 545. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1047902.

    In recent years, environmental justice advocates have made a convincing claim that risky facilities have been disproportionately clustered in poor communities and communities of color. NIMBYism (not in my backyard) has spread from predominantly white, affluent suburbs to poorer communities of color. In this article, we propose a means of addressing environmental inequities and breaking the siting impasse. We think that poor communities of color might use the proposed siting of risky facilities as a basis for negotiating substantial improvements in the well-being of their communities. We propose to embed siting negotiations in the preparation of broader development packages, jointly created with citizens of poor neighborhoods and communities of color, so that health risks are reduced, the environment is improved, and all residents are better off. As far as justice is concerned, the perceived fairness of the process by which risks are communicated and selected, and risk management strategies are devised, is as important as the actual allocation of risk.

Year of Publication: 1995

Year of Publication: 1994

  • Solutions to environmental problems require international cooperation, but global environmental treaty-making efforts, including the 1992 U.N.-sponsored Earth Summit in Brazil, have not accomplished much. International cooperation has been hampered by the conflicts between the developed nations of the North and the developing nations of the South; by the fact that science cannot accurately predict when or how environmental threats will materialize; and by the problem that the United Nations treaty-making system was never meant to handle threats to the environment.

    Lawrence Susskind looks at the weaknesses of the existing system of environmental treaty-making and the increasing role of non-governmental interests in environmental diplomacy. Environmental Diplomacy argues for "nearly self-enforcing" agreements that ensure compliance without threatening sovereignty and maintains that new institutional arrangements are within reach. Susskind builds on the work of the Program on Negotiation at the Harvard Law School and the International Environmental Negotiation Network to offer guidelines for more effective global agreements that provide for sustainable development.

  • Five-issue negotiation between three factory representatives and three Federal Environmental Agency representatives over the factory's new operational agreement, in the context of harsh public criticism of both parties

Year of Publication: 1993

Year of Publication: 1992

  • This case study is one segment in the second phase of a project,initiated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1986, to document how AlternativeDispute Resolution (ADR) can be used by Corps District offices to minimize the enormous costsassociatedwith disputes that arise between CorpsDistrictoffices and private corporations. By publishing and distributingpamphlets about different types of ADR processes as well as about past cases in which ADR has been used successfully, the Corps' Office of ChiefCounsel has been encouraging its use since 1984.

  • This case study is one segment in the secondphase of a project,initiated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1986, to document how Alternative Dispute Resolution(ADR) can be used by Corps District offices to minimize the enormouscosts associated with disputes that arise between Corps District offices and privatecorporations. By publishing and distributing pamphlets about different types of ADR processes as well as about past cases in whichADR has been used successfully, the Corps' Office of Chief Counsel has been encouraging its use since 1984.

  • Six-player negotiation with a mediator role. 

Year of Publication: 1991

Year of Publication: 1990

Year of Publication: 1989

  • On April 6-10, 1988, BechtelNational Inc. (Bechtel) andthe U. S. Army Corps of Engineers(Corps), Omaha District, used a mini-trial to settle a complexseries of claimsfor $3.7 million. The caseconsisted of seven separateclaims, including those of majorsubcontractors, totalling, at the time of the mini-trial, $21.2 millionincluding interest*.Originally filed in the fall of 1986,the claims arose from modifications and impactsdue to incompletedesign plans for construction of theConsolidated SpaceOperations Center (CSOC) in Colorado.

  • Drawing on his experience in the MIT-Harvard Public Disputes Program, a leading mediator and his co-author provide the first jargon-free guide to consensual strategies for resolving public disputes—indispensable to citizen activists and to business and government leaders.

  • Susskind, L., Nijkamp, P. & Archibugi, F., 1989. Four Important Changes in the American Approach to Environmental Regulation. In Economy & Ecology: Towards Sustainable Development. Economy & Ecology: Towards Sustainable Development. Springer.

    After a period of relative silence, recent years have been marked by an upswing of interest in environmental issues. The publication of the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development on 'Our Common Future' (1987) has acted as a catalyst for a revival of the environmental awareness, not only regarding local and daily pollution problems, but also -and in particular- regarding global environmental decay and threats to a sustainable development. In a recent study by W.M. Stigliani et al., on 'Future Environments for Europe' (Executive Rep~rt 15, IIASA, Laxenburg, 1989) the environmental implications of various alternative socioeconomic development pathways with respect to eleven environmental issues that could become major problems in the future are analysed. These issues include: Managing water resources in an era of climate change. Acidification of soils and lakes in Europe. Long-term forestry management and the possibility of a future shortfall in wood supply. Areas of Europe marginalized by mainstream economic and agricultural development. Sea level rise. Chemical pollution of coastal waters. Toxic materials buildup and the potential for chemical time bombs. Non-point-source emissions of potentially toxic substances. Transportation growth versus air quality. Decreasing multi-functionally of land owing to urban and suburban land development. Increasing summer demand for electricity, and the impact on air quality.

  • The following two studies describe and analyze the same case: The Phoenix-GoodyearAirport (PGA.) Superfund Site.A mini-trial was used to resolve the relative responsibility of PotentiallyResponsible Parties (PRP's): theDepartment of Defense (DOD) andGoodyear Ti-e and RubberCompany. The case could prove to be an important illustration of how ADR generally and the mini-trial specifically could apply to Superfund clean-ups.

  • Highly complex multi-party, multi-issue negotiation among political, industry, environmental, and consumer leaders and lobbyists to develop a detailed proposal to reduce U.S. vulnerability to changes in energy prices and supply

  • Siskind, E. & Susskind, L., 1989. The Incineration Conflict: Addressing Public Concerns. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 9(3).

    Local concerns about the health and environmental effects of proposed incinerators have made it difficult to site such facilities. Litigation has stalemated the implementation of many new incinerators throughout the United States. While further research on the actual health and environmental effects of air emissions and ash residue from various kinds of incineration is important, it is unlikely that any group will be able to win an incinerator battle because it musters new scientific evidence.

Year of Publication: 1988

Year of Publication: 1987

Year of Publication: 1986

Year of Publication: 1985

Year of Publication: 1984

Year of Publication: 1983

Year of Publication: 1982

  • Susskind, L., Vandergrift, L. & Greenwald, R., 1982. IRBs and the Regulation of Social Science Research. In Human Subjects Research: A Handbook for Institutional Review Boards. Human Subjects Research: A Handbook for Institutional Review Boards. Springer US.

    For an increasing number of hospitals and universities the institutional review board (lRB) has become a way of life. Spurred into existence by public outcries about the unethical nature of certain modern scientific experiments, the IRB represents the most visible evidence of institutional commitment to ethical review of clinical research. However, this exponential growth of IRB activities has not occurred without growing pains. Like the Environmental Protection Agency, IRBs have had to develop procedures and standards without a clear consensus as to what would be optimal for science and society. Each IRB has perforce devised its own modus operandi, subject to general principles and guidelines laid down by others but still relatively free to stipulate the details of its functioning. Thus one can applaud the general idea as well as the overall performance of IRBs without asserting that the millenium has arrived. The composition, philosophy, efficiency, responsibilities, and powers of IRBs remain topics suit­ able for debate. It is still possible (and appropriate) for IRB members to worry both about the propriety of their decisions and the personal costs of their service.

  • Five years ago, in the second issue of the EIA Review, I suggested that it was time to shift our attention from impact assessment to strategies for resolving environmental disputes. In Iris state-of-the-art summary in that same October 1978 issue, David O'Connor reviewed the first twenty environmental mediation efforts in the United States and concluded that "mediation by neutral parties has played a significant role in resolving a number of important and controversial environmental disputes."

Year of Publication: 1981

  • Much of the preparation of this book has been generously supported by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, Massachusetts. It evolved from a colloquium held in October 1977, under the sponsorship of the Lincoln Institute. The three-day symposium entitled "Land Policy: Making the Value Choices" involved the preparation of major papers and formal discussions, most of which appear here in considerably revised form, along with additional pieces commis­ sioned later. The colloquium was an idea jointly conceived by myself and Edward Wood, a colleague at the time in the Tufts University Program in Urban Social and Environmental Policy. We were concerned about two major limitations in the literature and debates over land use. On the one hand, there was little explicit recognition of the latent values that motivated land use policy. On the other, there was no common forum where people from the different land use fields could discuss the issues and learn from one another. A small group of about two dozen people was invited to the colloquium. Each member was a leading spokesman for a different perspective and area of expertise. All participated formally in some fashion. All the papers were written expressly for the col­ loquium, with the exception of Ann Strong's, which was a keynote address to the American Society of Planning Officials earlier in the year. None of the papers has been published elsewhere.

  • Environmental mediation is being practiced in many parts of the United States. Although still sparse, mediation experience is accumulating rapidly. Strong professional and interpersonal networks are aiding the rapid development of the field.3 Consensus building" and conflict management techniques dominate the environmental dispute resolution field, but formal mediation is employed in a growing number of instances.

  • For participation advocates, citizen involvement in government decision making is synonymous with:(1) democratization of resource allocation choices,(2) decentralization of service systems management,(3) deprofessionalization of bureaucratic judgments that affect the lives of residents, and (4) dmystification of design and investment decisions (Alinsky, 1946; Illich, 1970; Kotier, 1969).

  • The practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) is shaped in large part by the values and beliefs of the professionals involved. Values-or nonobjective personal judgments of merit or worth influence the choices made at all junctures of an impact assessment. Personal or nonobjective considerations affect outcomes more than is usually recognized.

Year of Publication: 1980

  • Susskind, L. et al., 1980. Public Participation and Consumer Sovereignty in an Era of Cutback Planning. In New Directions for the Mature Metropolis : Policies and Strategies for Change. New Directions for the Mature Metropolis : Policies and Strategies for Change. Schenkman Publishing Company.

    The essays in this volume evolved from two conferences, both of which focused on issues relating to managing urban decline, the first titled "Alternate Futures for Older Metropolitan Regions" held at Youngstown State University and the University of Akron in May, 1978, and the second titled "Managing Mature Cities" held at the Cincinnati Convention Center in June, 1978; the authors offer several perspectives on the aging of older metropolitan regions, suggesting that aging need not be synonymous with decline and that slow-growth or no-growth offers opportunities for improving the quality of life for city residents.

  • In 1977, when the accumulation of well-intentioned regulations made it difficult to site a liquified natural gas (LNG) facility in California, the legislature, with the full support of Governor Edmund G. Brown, Jr., passed a law, Senate Bill 1081 (Chapter 855, Statutes of 1977), that said, in effect, "not withstanding any previously enacted legislation or regulatory requirements, California will designate an LNG terminal site within a year." The state's attempt to preempt local regulatory authority, to say nothing of the legislature's willingness to circumvent its own facility siting, coastal protection, and environmental impact assessment laws, seems to leave failed. This case study describes the circumstances leading up to the enactment of S.B. 1081 and analyzes tile dangers associated with preemptive legislation. Had California confronted the real weaknesses in its energy facility siting process, the state could have identified positive steps that" would have accelerated site ~selection without triggering the staunch opposition that now threatens indefinite delay.

  • Almost every effort to protect or enhance environmental quality is perceived as a challenge, at least at the outset, by groups or individuals whose economic self-interest-or political beliefs-are threatened. 1 Similarly, almost every attempt to promote economic development or technological innovation is viewed as a potential insult to the quality of the natural environment or a threat to the delicate "ecological balance" upon which we all depend.2 Environmental and developmental interests, if the shorthand is permissible, are locked in a fierce and widening battle.

Year of Publication: 1979

Year of Publication: 1978

Year of Publication: 1977

  • Susskind, L. & Newcome, R., 1977. The Obstacles to Regional Resource Recovery: A Massachusetts Case Study, Laboratory of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    While state policy in Massachusetts favors regional action, there is evidence to suggest that the current level of state intervention and the difficulties municipalities have assessing the relative merits of alternative solid waste disposal technologies make it difficult to carry regional negotiations to a successful conclusion. Much of the difficulty surrounding efforts to implement regional resource recovery appears to stem from the failure to generate an adequate bargaining process in which (1) all the parties to the dispute are involved in the negotiations; (2) the impacts of alternative sites and technologies are adequately specified; and (3) procedures are adopted for fairly compensating the individuals and communities affected adversely. The efforts of a group of cities and towns in northeastern Massachusetts to implement a regional resource recovery plan is instructive on all these points. Strategies for overcoming existing barriers to regionalization are discussed.
     

Year of Publication: 1975

Year of Publication: 1974

  • Infeuential members of the urban planning profession have developed certain ideas about new town design, including notions such as self-containment, social balance, and the neighborhood unit. These parallel, to some extent, concepts that have emerged from the field of community sociology. Eforts to put these idem into practice have fallen far short of the murk. Without more sophisticated implementation mechanisms, better theories of social interaction at the neighborhood level, and new approaches to citizen participation, eforts to build new towns are likely to remain severely crippled. The aim of this paper is to summarize past efforts to translate implicit theories of social organization into actual new town ah signs. The possibilities of closing the gap between theory and practice through the use of more explicit forms of social experimentation are discussed in the context of the fledgling new towns program in the United States.

  • Susskind, L., 1974. Planning for the future of Rockport: an analysis community needs and recommendation for action, Citizens for Rockport, Rockport, Massachusetts with the assistance of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT. Available at: https://archive.org/details/planningforfutur00mass.

    This report documents the consequences of rapid and unplanned growth and is intended to help design more effective recommendations for shaping new development, and to involve as many people as possible in the formulation of an overall growth strategy for the town of Rockport, Massachusetts; focuses on housing, land use, tourism, town finances, environmental management issues, etc.; includes aerial views; this item was in the BRA collection

  • Susskind, L. & Godshalk, D., 1974. The Future of the Planning Profession. In Planning in America: Learning from Turbulence. Planning in America: Learning from Turbulence. American Planning Association.

Year of Publication: 1973

  • Susskind, L. & Rodwin, L., 1973. Land Use Issues Suggested by a National Growth Strategy, Washington D.C.: National Science Foundation.
  • Influential members of the urban planning profession have developed certain ideas about new town design, including notions such as self-containment, social balance, and the neighborhood unit. These parallel, to some extent, concepts that have emerged from the field of community sociology. Efforts to put these ideas into practice have fallen far short of the mark. Without more sophisticated implementation mechanisms, better theories of social interaction at the neighborhood level, and new approaches to citizen participation, efforts to build new towns are likely to remain severely crippled. The aim of this paper is to summarize past efforts to translate implicit theories of social organization into actual new town designs. The possibilities of closing the gap between theory and practice through the use of more explicit forms of social experimentation are discussed in the context of the fledgling new towns program in the United States.

Year of Publication: 1972

Year of Publication: 1970

  • This article summarizes the current prospects for urban planning education. Working from nationwide surveys of planning students and planning departments as well as from the National Conference on Urban Planning Education, the authors find that many students are dissatisfied with the style and content of planning education and that many planning departments are unable to articulate the educational objectives of their programs. Survey responses from planning programs reveal a distinct dichotomy between schools mentioning societal change and schools oriented toward meeting current professional needs. Very few departments have developed innovative curricula or teaching methods, and, in general, only a few schools seem willing to take the risks involved in experimenting with new models of planning education.